Fruit sugar (fructose) occurs naturally in honey, fruits, berries, flowers, and many root vegetables. It is a simple sugar, much sweeter than another familiar simple sugar, glucose.
Unlike glucose though, our cells are not able to use fructose to make energy. Instead, the fructose we eat or drink goes to the liver for processing.
In theory, the liver can convert fructose to glucose, which can then be added to the body’s glucose pool for energy production. This doesn’t often happen because usually glucose is present in the food or drink, so there’s enough glucose available, and the liver doesn’t waste energy converting fructose to add to an already-high glucose supply.
Fatty human liver (NAFLD)
The triglyceride made from fructose is stored in the liver at first. At this early stage, routine blood tests may show liver enzymes increasing, but still within the ‘normal’ ranges, so your doctor may suggest ‘keeping an eye on it’.
Over time, as more and more fructose is consumed, more and more is converted to fat. The liver enlarges, and the fat hinders normal liver functions. Now ALT and GGT, two of many enzymes made in the liver, spill out into the bloodstream and show up, elevated, in your next annual blood test. Raised ALT and raised GGT are two signs of liver disease.
Lab Test Online is a useful website where you can find out the meaning of your blood tests, and all their abbreviations.
Along with the enzyme elevations, if palpation of the liver, or an ultrasound scan, confirms an enlarged liver, a diagnosis of fatty liver disease (also known as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease – NAFLD for short) is made.
Progression of NAFLD leads to insulin resistance, then metabolic syndrome, and eventually to an alarming array of debilitating lifestyle diseases such as obesity, cancer, type2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
This Healthline article is an easy read about fatty liver and what to do about it.
Fatty goose liver
Fattening of the liver is well known to French farmers. Geese or ducks are fed copious amounts of corn, which the birds digest to sugars.
The sugars cause their livers to become greatly enlarged and engorged with fat by the same mechanism human livers become enlarged and engorged with fat.
After the birds are slaughtered, their fat-laden livers are processed into the delicacy, foie gras (foie is French for liver; gras is French for fat).
Apart from humans and geese, starch fattens other animals, too. Farmers use a variety of carbohydrate-based fodders to fatten their livestock before taking them to market.
In many countries, even though ruminants may have started life eating grass and other plants, they spend the last months of their lives in confined feeding operations (CAFO). There, the animals are given dry feeds, such as corn, grains, soy, and even wastes from the human food-processing industries, for example, a biscuit and cereal mix called BCM.
If you’re interested, the Agrifeeds New Zealand website has pictures and short descriptions of the various fattening carbohydrates, many of which fatten humans, too.
The meat from CAFO animals contains more omega-6 fats, compared with their counterparts grazing omega-3-rich pasture plants.
When humans eat the CAFO meat, the omega-6 fats contained in it contribute to an omega-6-to-omega-3 imbalance.
Having a high amount of omega-6 and a low amount of omega-3 is known to play an important role in the inflammatory processes at the root of most chronic diseases listed at this Wikipedia page.
If you’re a meat eater and can afford it, it’s certainly worth paying extra for pasture-fed, pasture-finished meats that have an appropriate balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fats.
Fatty blood (high triglycerides)
Not only liver enzymes spill out into the blood, so do the triglycerides made from fructose, described in the NAFLD section above.
High triglycerides (often abbreviated to TG) in the blood are usually accompanied by a low level of the so-called ‘good’ cholesterol (HDLc), both of which your routine blood tests will show.
The ratio TG-to-HDLc (the amount of triglycerides compared with the amount of HDL cholesterol) is now considered an important indicator of cardiovascular disease risk, especially in women. If your triglyceride level is rising, it’s not worth ignoring it.
This article from the Mayo Clinic explains the import of high triglycerides, and what you can do to lower them.
In many animals the uric acid made from fructose can be converted by an enzyme called uricase, to a substance called allantoin, which is then excreted. This conversion process is a natural mechanism to keep uric acid levels low.
Ancient genetic mutation
Some 15 million years ago, during the Miocene Epoch, a genetic mutation occurred in humans (and great apes) that removed our ability to make the conversion enzyme, uricase.
As a result of the mutation, we can’t convert uric acid to allantoin to get rid of it, and therefore have a continually higher level of uric acid in our blood compared with other mammals, like bears or squirrels.
Some researchers think the loss of the ability to make uricase has been advantageous, because uric acid is a powerful antioxidant and scavenger of free radicals. In other words, uric acid protects us from free radicals, thereby increasing lifespan and decreasing the chances of developing cancer in later life.
However, like many compounds in the body, there’s a ‘Goldilocks’ amount. A little uric acid is beneficial, but high uric acid raises blood pressure, leads to gout, kidney stones, and contributes to insulin resistance, weight gain, diabetes, and the rest of the long list of lifestyle diseases.
Back in the Miocene, insulin resistance and resulting weight gain, caused by the increase in uric acid, may have been beneficial survival mechanisms, too.
As the Ice Age approached and the European forests declined, fruit that was once abundant became scarce. The increase in uric acid acted a bit like a fat switch, allowing our ancestors and great apes to become insulin resistant and store as fat, whatever fruit they could find.
Then, in times of famine, the fat was used to make energy, enabling survival until more food became available.
A similar mechanism of fat storage is programmed in hibernating mammals. Copious amounts of fruits are eaten in late Autumn, greatly increasing the animals’ fat deposits before the cold Winter arrives.
Fruit in late Autumn is at its highest fructose content, and the animals temporarily develop fatty liver, become insulin resistant, and obese.
Then, while they shelter in their dens from the Winter snows and ice, fasting until Spring arrives, they slowly mobilise their body fat and use it to produce life-giving energy.
When they emerge from hibernation in the Spring, the animals are slim, and no longer have fatty liver or insulin resistance. The yearly cycle starts anew, but they must wait until late Autumn before they can gorge on sweet fruit again.
Fructose available every day
Thanks to modern agricultural technologies, food processing, world-wide logistic supply chains, and supermarkets, humans have access to fructose-stuffed foods, fruits, and drinks all year round.
For many, that means a fat switch permanently stuck in the ‘on’ position. The result is an epidemic of people with fatty liver disease, high uric acid levels, high triglycerides, insulin resistance, and weight gain.
Even more alarming is the increasing number of children with fatty livers.
Well-meaning parents ‘treat’ their young ones to fruit juices, colas, sports drinks, cordials, squashes, and flavoured milk drinks, more or less on demand.
All that fructose causes so many youngsters to develop fatty liver, sets them on the road to debilitating diseases, and they’re expected to be the first generation to live shorter lives than their parents.
This article by Dr Mercola clearly explains NAFLD in children, and has suggestions for reversing the disease.
Clinical research by pediatric endocrinologist at the University of California San Fransisco, Professor Robert Lustig, has clearly demonstrated fructose acts on the nucleus accumbens in the brains of adults and children.
The nucleus accumbens is where humans experience the ‘feel-good’ sensations after using alcohol, tobacco, other drugs, socialising, listening to music, and a variety of other pleasurable activities.
Fructose has been shown to light up the centre, too.
Albeit more subdued, the pleasure response is similar to any other substance of addiction. And like the other addictive substances, adults and children want to experience the pleasurable feelings of fructose again and again.
Added sugar and fructose
Manufacturers of foods and drinks are well aware of the nucleus accumbens and what it means for profit margins.
They pay consultants to find the ‘bliss point‘ by testing on volunteers before they launch new products.
For a food, the bliss point is the combination of sugar, salt, fat, and a host of other additives that volunteers find the most appealing to their senses of sight, touch, smell, mouth-feel, and taste.
For a drink, it’s the combination of sugar, fructose, glucose, acidity regulators, colourants, and flavourants that give the drink the greatest ‘come-back-for-more’ appearance and flavour.
Have a look at this blueberry juice carton available in a local store.
In spite of the misleading picture on the front of the box depicting blueberries, only 10% is actual blueberry, and even that small amount is derived from processed concentrate.
The sugar, glucose-fructose-syrup, and the other ingredients have been added in various proportions to stimulate the drinker’s nucleus accumbens in just the right way to have children and their parents wanting more, ensuring repeat purchases.
What to do?
If you don’t want to be manipulated by food manufacturers, ignore the pretty picture on the front of containers and carefully read the ingredients lists.
Better still, make the juice yourself at home, from real whole fruit. Then you’ll know exactly what’s in it.
And even better than the home-made juice, is to eat the whole fruit and not juice the fruit at all.
If you try juicing at home, you’ll see the amazing quantity of fruit you and your children are actually drinking, when you knock back a glass of juice in a restaurant.
Also, you’ll see you’re throwing away the fibre beneficial for gut health. In addition, fibre has many nutrients attached to it, so you throw them away, too.
Apart from the attached nutrients, another benefit of fibre is that it slows the rate of digestion of the fruit, meaning the fruit sugars are slowly released and are much less likely to cause harmful sugar and insulin spikes.
In contrast, it’s very easy for thirsty children to polish off a big glass of juice in just a minute or so. Their blood glucose is rocketed sky high, giving their young pancreas a big kick into insulin-producing action, and sending their sensitive livers into fructose-disposal overdrive.
The best drink to quench thirst is water. It’s cheap, has zero calories, no effect on the addiction centre, and it won’t make your liver, or your children’s young livers, fat.
Fruit has been very successfully marketed as a necessary component of a so-called ‘balanced’ diet. As a modern convenience, fruit juice has been promoted as an acceptable substitute for whole fruit, forming part of the ‘5-a-day’ recommendation.
Unfortunately, the recommendations were invented to increase sales and have nothing to do with nutritional science.
Truth be told: There is no clinical evidence to show fruit is necessary for survival. In fact, we don’t need to eat any carbohydrate at all. That’s because human livers are equipped to make glucose from fat or protein (in a process called gluconeogenesis).
If we’re not eating carbohydrate, our livers make glucose, so we never run short of glucose for the cells that need it.
Although fruit contains carotenoid and flavonoid antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, fibre, and water, so do above-ground vegetables and salads. And the big bonus of vegetables and salads is that they come without the heavy dose of glucose and fructose.
Sucrose (table sugar)
Even though you may avoid fruit juices, sugary drinks, and fruit, it’s still possible to get doses of fructose.
Table sugar is, in fact, two simple sugars joined together. Every teaspoon of sucrose is actually half-a-teaspoon of glucose joined to half-a-teaspoon of fructose.
As soon as the sugar gets in your mouth, enzymes in your saliva quickly start breaking the sucrose into its glucose and fructose halves.
The glucose half rapidly enters your bloodstream, raising your blood sugar level, and the fructose portion rapidly lights up your brain’s pleasure centre on its way to your liver.
Although sugar is sometimes added to baked goods prepared at home, at least you can control how much sugar goes into the mixing bowl.
Not so with factory-made foods, or with foods ordered in a restaurant.
Check the labels on the packaged products you’ve got in your fridge and cupboards and you’ll be surprised how much sugar many of them contain.
These are two examples from our local shops…
My wife, Heide, eats a small quantity of bread, which she bakes herself. The basic wholewheat bread recipe is wholewheat flour, water, yeast, pinch of salt, and a pinch of sugar to feed the yeast.
Compare the home recipe with this ‘healthy’ wholewheat bread I saw at a local supermarket. It has a long list of 20 ingredients, 5 of which are sugar sources, viz. sugar, milk, milk derivatives, malt extract, raisin juice concentrate.
And this frozen meal of hake in Thai sauce contains a long list of 23 ingredients, including 5 sources of sugar: maltodextrin, dextrose, milk solids, sugar, orange powder.
Instead of the processed fish dish above, try this recipe for making hake in Thai sauce at home, using healthy whole-food ingredients.
In summary, for a healthy liver…
- Why risk ruining your liver, and your children’s livers, with sugar-laden fruit juice, colas, sports drinks, cordials, squashes, and flavoured milks?
- Healthy alternatives are fresh water, and freshly-brewed teas without sugar or milk. For example, here are 10 amazing health benefits of green tea.
- If you can’t abstain from fruit, limit it to one or two small servings a day with a meal.
- Enjoy the whole fruit.
- Choose berries, instead of modern tree fruits that have been bred to be large and high in very sweet fructose. Berries are packed with vitamins, minerals, colourful antioxidants, and fibre, giving you a healthy bang for your buck, without the glucose and insulin spikes of tree fruits.
- If you can’t avoid factory-made foods, read the labels before you buy and choose ones with short lists of ingredients you recognise, and without added sugars.
- Whenever you can, buy fresh vegetables, salads, spices, meats, fish, eggs, cheese, nuts, and make your own meals at home.
- Encourage your children to have fun helping you in the kitchen. They’ll grow up knowing how to choose and cook real food, and armed with the knowledge they need to bring their own healthy children into the world.
Professor Richard Johnson has been researching the fat switch in animals and humans for years, has a wonderful grasp of the subject, and a very enjoyable way of imparting his knowledge.
His talk: ‘Sugar and its Role in Driving Obesity and Fatty Liver‘ is a very interesting one, which he gave to a young audience in New Zealand at a FIZZ – Fighting Sugar in Drinks – workshop, explaining what happens when they have sugar- and fructose-laden foods and drinks.
I’ve added the 30-minute video to our Thrive Low Carb collection on YouTube, so if you’d like to watch it, please scroll down this list and you’ll see it around number 17 in the collection.
This short (14 minute) video, from a series by the ‘What I’ve Learned’ YouTube channel, explains how fructose ruins liver health…
Suggestions? Questions? Comments?
Please use the comment box to send me any suggestions, questions or comments you may have. Thanks for reading. Hope it helped you [and your liver :-)].